The Role of Mobile Libraries in Supporting Education

Introduction

A Mobile library refers to a suitably equipped and reinforced vehicle or bus that visits schools according to a regular schedule, with a resources collection that may be borrowed by learners and teachers. It can also be used to refresh a school’s resource collection by issuing of block loans. This model of library is operated from a central library/depot of resources, such as regional or district education resource center. The mobile library service was initiated chiefly to alleviate the demands for library service at the main libraries by reaching out to the general population with the sole aim of providing accurate and current information to meet the needs in rural schools.

Butdisuwan (2000), defined Mobile library as a library that serves communities and locations that are distant from a local library. They are mostly run from Monday to Friday and sometimes on Saturdays.

Knight (2006), defined Mobile Library as a large vehicle for use as a library. It is designed to hold books on shelves so that the books can easily be accessed by readers when the vehicle is parked. The vehicle used usually has enough space for people to read the book inside of it. They are often used to provide library service to villages and city suburbs which have no library buildings. They can also serve groups of those who have difficulty accessing library services.

Niemand (2004), defined Mobile library as a library housed in a large van that provides a live service to those unable to attend their nearest local library.

Requirements for the Operation of a Mobile Library

Some of the requirements needed for the operation of a such services are highlighted thus:

• A teacher-Librarian to manage the overall service;

• Library assistant and a driver;

• Funding for fuel, maintenance and licensing;

• Optional online information and circulation services, linked to parent education library management system, by means of a laptop and scanner;

• A service level agreement with schools involved that clearly articulates the role and responsibilities between the schools and the providers of the service;

• A schedule of regular visits, based on school terms;

• A dedicated budget for collection development and running costs;

• Ongoing training for teachers who have access to the collection; and a

• Monitoring and reporting mechanism (Knight, 2006).

The Role of Mobile Libraries in supporting education

Libraries and information centres do not exist in vacuum. There is always a sound rationale for their operations. Hence the following reasons below express the importance of mobile libraries:

• Move on to service other schools as schools progress towards developing their own school library and information service;

• The school’s library resource is refreshed regularly by mobile library service since the selection is based on the needs of the schools that are visited;

• This service is useful especially in the rural schools, when there is a lack of large organizational capacity and a lack of space to establish a proper library;

• Engage in the sharing of resources which enables learners and teachers to access a wide range of resources;

• Assist the teachers in growing learners to become information literate and develop the reading habit;

• Have other learning interventions such as music, arts, science and technology learning Programmes as part of the School Library and Information Service Programme, which will benefit all learners.

• Target user groups and their information needs in remote communities or other regions where library services are currently unable to stimulate or meet the demand for information;

• Stretch out their services to reach the physically disabled;

• Mobile libraries make reading materials available to various schools based on their different learning needs. Picture books with less complex illustrations, words and information books with many photographs are selected for a class at the preparatory level;

• They play a vital role in times of crises by directing many stakeholders such as citizens, experts and policy makers by providing trustworthy sources of information;

• Building lasting ties with the school community through establishing sustainable partnership by helping to inculcate the habit and culture of reading in the communities;

• Provide read-aloud session and user-education programmes especially when new users are introduced to their services; and

• Provide reference materials such as encyclopedias, dictionaries, maps, atlases, and globes for extensive source of information and references for their patrons (Beenham and Harrison, 1990).

Challenges Faced in the Operating Mobile Library Services

Mobile Libraries operations are not without challenges. These range from a lot of issues as stated below:

• Resources are limited and there is a chance that the appropriate resources could be selected by another school first. Mobile Library is medium is size and referral in nature and most times can accommodate less than fifty (50) users at a time. It also lacks certain facilities such as the bibliographic instructions and the library catalogue which are the keys to the holding of the library;

• The lack of space to read and the time to explore the mobile library is not sufficient. Typically depending on the size of the school population and duration of visit, each class is given thirty (30) minutes to utilise the library. As the number of children and classes increases in schools, the amount of time and space decreases in order to cater for all;

• More so, lack of sufficient trained and qualified personnel is another challenge of mobile library operation. Many a time, mobile library staff lacks the required qualification in the field of librarianship;

• Financial constraints also pose a challenge to running a mobile library. A mobile library needs a recurrent income and expenditure budget in order to augment for its depleted resources over a set of time owing to its consistent usage by users;

• Management of the Service could be problematic, as schools have to be held accountable for items borrowed;

• Distance and terrain present their own challenges especially as the service is limited by the number of buses servicing rural areas;

• Buses can also be a target for thieves especially if they carry computers; and

• Donated buses already customized from other countries need to be serviced locally, while there is also the added attendant of cost of importation clearance.

Indeed, a mobile library service is one of the most important services that library and Information Services use to meet their aims and objectives. There is considerable potential in the use the mobile library services as a support to local or stationary library services but there are also many challenges. There should be therefore commitment on the part of the government of nations, Educational Administrators, Librarians, and National library administrations, in order to achieve quality and sustainability in the development and improvement of mobile library services. Only through their active participation will mobile library services transform the teaching and learning process in education.

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Starting the Charlotte Mason Education on a Budget

One thing that seems to discourage many parents from the Charlotte Mason Method is they believe that it is an expensive way to homeschool. This couldn’t be further from the truth. There are many ways to provide a Charlotte Mason education on a strict budget.

Borrowing Books
Many of the books that can be used in your Charlotte Mason curriculum can be found in your local library. In general, many of the books are considered “classics” so they should be easy to find. Also, if you belong to a homeschool group, you may be able to find others in your group who use the Charlotte Mason method and would be willing to loan books to you that they are not currently using. Try setting up a Charlotte Mason group book exchange to help keep the flow of books going.

Purchasing Books
You can also purchase some of the books that are used in several years through ABE Books. ABE Books is a great network of book resellers, so you can find used books at a much lower price (usually) than new. Also, I use Amazon for a lot of the books that I will use on a regular basis, just because in general a new book will handle the wear and tear much better than a used one. In addition, there have been several times where I have been able to find a new book at Amazon for the same price or even lower than a used book. So be sure to check both ABE Books and Amazon before you make a purchase. I have also had a lot of luck getting books for my personal library from public library sales (many libraries will have a book sale once a year as a fundraiser) or at thrift stores and garage sales.

Since many of the books are classics, they are ones that will have been in personal libraries for decades, and if they are not actively using them, may be wiling to part when them. It’s great because usually at libraries, thrift stores, and garage sales I am able to purchase hard cover books for much less than paperback prices (usually just a dollar or two each.) And hard back books tend to last longer and look better than paperback.

Reading Books Online
Since they are classics, many of the books used in a Charlotte Mason education can be found online. I use this method for a few of the harder to find books, however, to me, having a child sit in front of the computer to read takes away some of the great benefits of having them actually hold and read a book. My daughter loves to do her lessons outside when the weather permits, something that you can’t do with a desktop. (Even with a laptop, there is something about having your child unplugged from the computer and holding an actual book in their hands that just seems to be a better approach in general!)

You can also get audio of many classic books online that you can download to an mP3 player. This is a great way to add variety to your homeschool day and give your child the chance to listen to someone else read to them which helps to develop their listening and comprehension skills.

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Use of RFID Technology in Libraries: An Automated Metheod of Circulation, Security, Tracking and…

1. Introduction

RFID is an acronym for Radio Frequency Identification. It is a technology that allows an item, for example a library book to be tracked and communicated with by radio waves. This technology is similar in concept to a Cell Phone.

Radio frequency identification, or RFID, is a broad term for technologies that use radio waves to automatically identify people or objects. There are several methods of identification, but the most common is to store a serial number that identifies a person or object, and perhaps other information, on a microchip that is attached to an antenna (the chip and the antenna together are called an RFID transponder or an RFID tag). The antenna enables the chip to transmit the identification information to a reader. The reader converts the radio waves reflected back from the RFID tag into digital information that can then be passed on to computers that can make use of it.

2.Concept of RFID for Libraries

RFID (Radio Frequency Identification) is the latest technology to be used in library circulation operations and theft detection systems. RFID-based systems move beyond security to become tracking systems that combine security with more efficient tracking of materials throughout the library, including easier and faster charge and discharge, inventorying, and materials handling.

This technology helps librarians reduce valuable staff time spent scanning barcodes while checking out and checking in borrowed items.

RFID is a combination of radio -frequency-based technology and microchip technology. The information contained on microchips in the tags affixed to library materials is read using radio frequency technology regardless of item orientation or alignment (i.e., the technology does not require line-of-sight or a fixed plane to read tags as do traditional theft detection systems). The RFID gates at the library exit(s) can be as wide as four feet because the tags can be read at a distance of up to two feet by each of two parallel exit gate sensors.

2.1 Components of an RFID System

A comprehensive RFID system has four components:

(1) RFID tags that are electronically programmed with unique information;

(2) Readers or sensors to query the tags;

(3) Antenna; and

(4) Server on which the software that interfaces with the integrated library software is loaded.

2.1.1Tags

The heart of the system is the RFID tag, which can be fixed inside a book’s back cover or directly onto CDs and videos. This tag is equipped with a programmeable chip and an antenna. Each paper-thin tag contains an engraved antenna and a microchip with a capacity of at least 64 bits. There are three types of tags: “read only”, “WORM,” and “read/write.

“Tags are “read only” if the identification is encoded at the time of manufacture and not rewritable.

“WORM” (Write-Once-Read-Many)” tags are programmed by the using organization, but without the ability of rewriting them later.

“Read/write tags,” which are chosen by most libraries, can have information changed or added. In RFID library, it is common to have part of the read/write tag secured against rewriting, e.g., the identification number of the item.

2.1.2 Readers

The reader powers an antenna to generate an RF field. When a tag passes through the field, the information stored on the chip in the tag is interpreted by the reader and sent to the server, which, in turn, communicates with the Integrated library system when the RFID system is interfaced with it.

RFID exit gate sensors (readers) at exits are basically two types. One type reads the information on the tag(s) going by and communicates that information to a server. The server, after checking against the circulation database, turn on an alarm if the material is not properly checked-out. Another type relies on a “theft” byte in the tag that is turned on or off to show that the item has been charged or not. It is then not necessary to communicate with the circulation database.

Readers in RFID library are used in the following ways:

Conversion station-where library data is written to the tag;

Staff workstation at circulation- used to charge and discharge library materials;

Self check-out station-used to check-out library materials without staff assistance;

Self check-in station-used to check in books etc. without staff assistance;

Exit sensors- to verify that all the books etc. leaving the library have been checked-out;

Book-drop reader- used to automatically discharge library materials and reactivate security.

Sorter and conveyor-automated system for returning books etc. to proper area of library;

Hand-held reader-used for inventorying and verifying that books etc. are shelved correctly.

2.1.3 Antenna

The antenna produces radio signals to activate the tag and read and write data to it. Antennas are the channels between the tag and the reader, which controls the system’s data acquisitons and communication. The electromagnetic field produced by an antenna can be constantly present when multiple tags are expected continually. Antennas can be built into a doorframe to receive tag data from person’s things passing through the door.

2.1.4 Server

The server is the heart of some comprehensive RFID systems. It is the communications gateway among the various components. It receives the information from one or more of the readers and exchanges information with the circulation database. Its software includes the SIP/SIP2 (Session Initiation Protocol), APIs (Applications Programming Interface) NCIP or SLNP necessary to interface it with the integrated library software. The server typically includes a transaction database so that reports can be produced.

2.2 Optional Components

Optional RFID system includes the following three components:

1. RFID Label Printer

2. Handheld Reader

3. External Book Return

1. RFID label Printer

An RFID-printer is used to print the labels with an individual barcode, library logo etc. When the print is applied, it simultaneously programmed the data in to the chip. After this process, the RFID label is taken from the printer and self-adhered to the book. It also checks each RFID label for function.

2. Handheld Reader/Inventory Wand

The portable Handheld Reader or inventory wand can be moved along the items on the shelves without touching them. The data goes to a storage unit, which can be downloaded at a server later on, or it can go to a unit, which will transmit it to the server using wireless technology. The inventory wand will cover three requirements:

· Screen the complete book collection on the shelves for inventory control.

· Search for books, which are mis-shelved.

· Search for individual book requested.

Other applications can be written for the inventory wand, since the system utilizes a personal data terminal (PDT).

3. External Book Return

Libraries can offer a distinct service, which is very useful for users like ability to return books during off hours. External book return is a machine with a slot with a chip RFID reader integrated into the wall. It works the same way as the Self Check –Out Station. The user identifies himself/herself (if required by the library), and then puts the book(s) in to the slot. Upon completing his/her return, the user will receive a receipt showing how many and which books were returned. Since they have already been checked-in, they can go directly back onto the shelves. These units can also be used with sorter and conveyor systems.

3. Key Features of RFID in library

The reliability of the system, its ease of operation, and the flexibility of tagging all kinds of media easily, is important criteria in choosing an RFID system. The main aim for today’s libraries to adopt RFID is the need to increase efficiency and reduce cost. Automation and self-service can help libraries of all sizes toward achieving these aims, and RFID has the added advantage that it can also provide security for the range of different media on offer in libraries. The technology can also improve circulation and inventory control, which helps to optimise the allocation of labour and financial resources. This means that libraries can relieve their professional employees of routine work and operational tasks.

All of the tags used in RFID technology for libraries are “passive.” The power to read the tags comes from the reader or exit sensor (reader), rather than from a battery within the tag.

A few libraries use “smart” card, which is an RFID card with additional encryption, is an alternative to merely adding an RFID tag on staff and user identification cards. Not only does that identify users for issue and return of library materials, but also for access to restricted areas or services. This would make it possible to make it into a “debit” card, with value added upon pre-payment to the library and value subtracted when a user used a photocopier, printer, or other fee-based device, or wished to pay fines or fees.

3.1 Speedy and Easy User self-charging/discharging

The use of RFID reduces the amount of time required to perform circulation operations. This technology helps librarians eliminate valuable staff time spent scanning barcodes while checking out and checking in borrowed items. For the users, RFID speeds up the borrowing and returns procedures. The Library professionals, instead of scanning bar codes all day long in front of a queue of users, are released for more productive and interesting duties. Staff is relieved further when readers are installed in book drops.

3.2 Reliability

The readers are highly reliable. Several vendors of RFID library systems claim an almost 100 percent detection rate using RFID tags.

Some RFID systems have an interface between the exit sensors and the circulation software to identify the items moving out of the library. Were a library user to run out of the library and not be catched, the library would at least know what had been stolen. If the user card also has an RFID tag, the library will also be able to determine who removed the items without properly charging them.

Other RFID systems encode the circulation status on the RFID tag. This is done by designating a bit as the “theft” bit and turning it off at time of charge and on at time of discharge. If the material that has not been properly charged is taken past the exit gate sensors, an immediate alarm is triggered. Another option is to use both the “theft” bit and the online interface to an integrated library system, the first to signal an immediate alarm and the second to identify what has been taken out.

3.3 High-speed inventorying

A unique advantage of RFID systems is their ability to scan books on the shelves without tipping them out or removing them. A hand-held inventory reader can be moved rapidly across a shelf of books to read all of the unique identification information. Using wireless technology, it is possible not only to update the inventory, but also to identify items, which are out of proper order.

3.4 Automated materials handling

Another application of RFID technology is automated materials handling. This includes conveyor and sorting systems that can move library materials and sort them by category into separate bins or onto separate carts. This significantly reduces the amount of staff time required to ready materials for re-shelving.

3.5 Tag life

RFID tags last longer than barcodes because, the technology does not require line-of-sight. Most RFID vendors claim a minimum of 100,000 transactions before a tag may need to be replaced.

4. Demerits of RFID Systems

4.1 High cost

The major disadvantage of RFID technology is its cost. While the readers and gate sensors used to read the information typically cost around $1,500 to $2,500 each; and the tags cost $.40 to $.75 each.

4.2 Accessibility to compromise

It is possible to compromise an RFID system by wrapping the protected material in two to three layers of ordinary household foil to block the radio signal. It is also possible to compromise an RFID system by placing two items against one another so that one tag overlays another. That may cancel out the signals. This requires knowledge of the technology and careful alignment.

4.3 Removal of exposed tags

RFID tags are typically affixed to the inside back cover and are exposed for removal. This means that there would be problems when users become more familiar with the role of the tags. In Indian libraries this is a major challenge to keep the tags intact.

4.4 Exit gate sensor (Reader) problems

While the short-range readers used for circulation charge and discharge and inventorying appear to read the tags 100 percent of the time, the performance of the exit gate sensors is more problematic. They always don’t read tags at up to twice the distance of the other readers. There is no library that has done a before and after inventory to determine the loss rate when RFID is used for security.

4.5 Invasion of User Privacy

Privacy concerns associated with item-level tagging is another significant barrier to library use of RFID tags. The problem with today’s library RFID system is that the tags contain static information that can be relatively easily read by unauthorized tag readers. This allows for privacy issues described as “tracking” and “hotlisting”.

Tracking refers to the ability to track the movements of a book (or person carrying the book) by “correlating multiple observations of the book’s bar code” or RFID tag. Hotlisting refers to the process of building a database of books and their associated tag numbers (the hotlist) and then using an unauthorized reader to determine who is checking out items in the hotlist.

4.6 Reader collision

One problem meet with RFID is the signal from one reader can interfere with the signal from another where coverage overlaps. This is called reader collision. One way to avoid the problem is to use a technique called time division multiple access, or TDMA. In simple terms, the readers are instructed to read at different times, rather than both trying to read at the same time. This ensures that they don’t interfere with each other. But it means any RFID tag in an area where two readers overlap will be read twice.

4.7 Tag collision

Another problem readers have is reading a lot of chips in the same field. Tag clash occurs when more than one chip reflects back a signal at the same time, confusing the reader. Different vendors have developed different systems for having the tags respond to the reader one at a time. Since they can be read in milliseconds, it appears that all the tags are being read simultaneously.

4.8 Lack of Standard

The tags used by library RFID vendors are not compatible even when they conform to the same standards because the current standards only seek electronic compatibility between tags and readers. The pattern of encoding information and the software that processes the information differs from vendor to vendor, therefore, a change from one vendor’s system to the other would require retagging all items or modifying the software.

5. Best Practices guidelines for Libraries

As libraries are implementing RFID systems, it is important to develop best practices guidelines to utilize the technology in best way and to keep the privacy concern away. The following may be the best practices guidelines for library RFID use:

· The Library should be open about its use of RFID technology including providing publicly available documents stating the rational for using RFID, objectives of its use and associated policies and procedure and who to contact with questions.

· Signs should be pasted at all facilities using RFID. The signs should inform the public that RFID technology is in use, the types of usage and a statement of protection of privacy and how this technology differs from other information collection methods.

· Only authorized personnel should have access to the RFID system.

· No personal information should be stored on the RFID tag.

· Information describing the tagged item should be encrypted on the tag even if the data is limited to a serial number

· No static information should be contained on the tag (bar code, manufacturer number) that can be read by unauthorised readers.

· All communication between tag and reader should be encrypted via a unique encryption key.

· All RFID readers in the library should be clearly marked.

· ISO 18000 mode-2 tags should be used rather than ISO 15693.

6. Installations

While there are over 500,000 RFID systems installed in warehouses and retail establishments worldwide, RFID systems are still relatively new in libraries. Fewer than 150 had been installed as of the 2004.

Most installations are small, primarily in branch libraries. The University of Connecticut Library; University of Nevada/Las Vegas Library, the Vienna Public Library in Austria, the Catholic University of Leuven in Belgium, and the National University of Singapore Library are the only sites that appear to have tagged more than 500,000 items each.
So far in India only two University libraries have Installed the RFID system. First among them is Jayakar Library of Pune University and second is Dhanvantri Library of Jammu University. The use of RFID throughout Indian libraries will take at least four to five years.

7. Recent Developments

Recent developments in hardware and software for RFID systems have increased the potential of this technology in library automation and security. ‘Today, the one important result for libraries is the ability to use non-proprietary systems, now that the new generation of RFID-chips with standard ISO 15693 (to be integrated into ISO 18000-3) is available,’ explains Dr Christian Kern, system development manager of Bibliotheca RFID Library Systems, a Swiss company specialising in such systems for libraries. ‘With this technology, libraries do not have to depend on one single supplier for tags. As libraries make a long-term investment, which mainly consists of the quantity of tags needed, this is a very important requirement.’

8. Vendors

The products of six manufacturers of library RFID systems are available in India through their business associates: Bibliotheca, Checkpoint, ID Systems, 3M, X-ident technology GmbH represented by Infotek software and systems in India and TAGSYS— the last represented by Tech Logic, Vernon, Libsys in India and VTLS .

There are several other companies that provide products that work with RFID, including user self-charging stations and materials handling equipment.

Conclusion

It is quite clear from the above discussion that an RFID system may be a comprehensive system that addresses both the security and materials tracking needs of a library. RFID in the library is not a threat if best practices guidelines followed religiously, that it speeds up book borrowing and inventories and frees staff to do more user-service tasks. The technology saves money too and quickly gives a return on investment.

As far as privacy issue is concerned it is important to educate library staff and library users about the RFID technology used in libraries before implementing a program.

It may be good for librarians to wait and watch the developments in RFID for some time before the cost of tags comes down to $.20 or less, the figure which librarians has determined is the key to their serious consideration for the use of technology.

While library RFID systems have a great deal in common with one another, including the use of high frequency (13.56 MHz), passive, read-write tags. Lack of Standard and Compatibility of tags produced by different vendors is a major problem in implementation of RFID in Libraries. Current standards (ISO 15693) apply to container level tagging used in supply chain applications and do not address problems of tracking and hot listing. Next generation tags (ISO 18000) are designed for item level tagging. The newer tags are capable of resolving many of the privacy problems of today’s tags. However, no library RFID products are currently available using the new standard. Apart from that cost of the RFID Tags and equipments is also a major problem for libraries to implement the same in a developing country like India.

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Fostering Beginning Braille Literacy Skills in a Supportive School Library Setting!

School Libraries! A placed filled with endless literacy opportunities and reading adventures. Just take one look around your school library and you will find numerous ways to foster reading, writing and literacy skills in the large print and Braille reader. Find countless positive ways to successfully instruct, integrate and model the seemingly endless low vision and Braille educational tools! Foster the use of large print, twin vision (Braille/print) and Braille specialized materials into library lessons along with sighted peers. Your large print and Braille reader will enjoy the real meaning of “Least Restrictive Environment” as well as fostering positive educational interactions with sighted peers. The benefits are great when you share large print and Braille specialized resources in a positive structured or incidental educational setting. Specialized materials and strategies will promote maximum literacy skills for your large print and Braille reader as well as provide a unique opportunity for sharing these materials and techniques with the sighted student.

Promote and cultivate your low vision and blind child’s literary skills and reading success in the school library with meaningful, low vision, large print and Braille specialized accommodations and materials.

1. Introduce your child/student to the librarian and library staff prior to the first day of school.

2. Schedule an Orientation & Mobility lesson with your child’s O & M specialist to explore the school library. This lesson can be coordinated with your Teacher of the Blind to address specialized material needs and low vision/braille labeling.

3. Discuss stocking the library with large print, twin vision (braille/print) and Braille books with consideration of your child’s age/grade and/or reading level. The library should contain a selection of books for the large print and braille reader that corresponds to book titles provided for the sighted student. In addition, include specialized titles demonstrating positive low vision and blind role models fostering a positive self-image. Include high motivational reading materials to address your child’s specific reading interests and hobbies.

4. Identify a specific location in the library for large print and Braille books. Label each section appropriately in large print or Braille so that they are easily accessible by low vision and Braille readers. Continue to integrate and build upon your library with a combination of new large print and Braille books and books already read (and no longer required) from the classroom, Braille lesson and/or home setting.

5. Having a large print and/or Braille book section in your library provides the librarian the opportunity to include these books into small group reading activities. It’s a great opportunity for the librarian to integrate specialized large print and Braille materials for the low vision and blind student along with sighted peers in a naturally occurring educational setting.

6. Make sure that your large print and Braille reader has a laptop copy of the book being read by the librarian/staff. This provides the student with the opportunity to follow along and develop visual and/or tactile tracking while developing literacy skills. It’s about taking advantage of every literacy opportunity in each incidental educational setting.

7. Build your low vision/blind students confidence by having them read a favorite or familiar large print or braille book to a small group of peers or even a younger group of students. Reading to peers is a functional use of low vision and/or Braille materials in a wonderful natural school setting.

8. Incorporate auditory keyboard software on one of the library computers and in the school computer room to develop beginning keyboarding and literacy skills. Keyboarding skills are essential and should include both 6-key and QWERTY instruction. Make sure your child’s technology/keyboarding skills, goals and equipment needs are individually evaluated by your technology specialist. He/she should be familiar with the most updated assessment, software and material tools for the low vision and blind student. Initiate student keyboarding early and practice often while integrating technology skills into the classroom setting. Enlist appropriate staff (teacher, Braille teacher and Occupational Therapist) to develop your child’s finger strength, accuracy and speed of keyboarding. Remember that keyboarding including both 6-key and QWERTY opens up a world of options when making future technology choices. Six-key and QWERTY keyboarding is also an opportunity to reinforce true literacy using both the Literary Braille code and spelling as used by the sighted.

9. Consider having a high contrast computer keyboard for your low vision student. Consult with your Teacher of the Blind and Partially Sighted regarding specific keyboard contrast recommendations.

10. Work with your librarian in developing a large print or Braille library card. This is a functional way to encourage reading and develop the typical responsibilities for “checking out” and “returning” low vision and/or Braille books in a timely manner.

11. A consistent supply and rotation of large print or Braille books provides ongoing accessible lendable literacy resources for your low vision and/or blind student while encouraging reading in the home setting.

12. There are a variety of school magazines available to the low vision and Braille reader. Consider placing large print and Braille magazines in the library as resources for loan. The American Printing House for the Blind is a good start to discover some of these useful material resources.

13. Label book shelves in large print and/or braille as required for your student. Labeling book sections will foster beginning organized tactile scanning skills. Shelves can be organized into grade level, twin vision/braille, subject matter, fiction/non-fiction, biography etc.

14. Helen Keller week is typically celebrated in the school setting. Make the most of this celebration with inclusion of a low vision and Braille “show and tell” of specialized materials presented in the library setting. Include items that Helen Keller would have used during her lifetime in addition to low vision and Braille specialized materials used in today’s educational setting. Showcase Braille books, a Braille Writer, slate & stylus, cane and Braille materials used by your Blind student.

15. Include large print/Braille books of historical figures and famous low vision and blind individuals that made a significant positive contribution or present as great role models. There are a variety of good books available and these should be included in your student’s library selections.

16. Establish a connection with your local library. Identify the process of obtaining appropriate large print and braille books for your child/student from the local library. Discuss appropriate larger print and Braille labels so that your child/student can navigate the appropriate book sections. See if your local library would like donations of your child’s gently used braille books to build their braille book collection. Donations of gently used braille books may be a welcome resource. Consider an orientation and mobility lesson for your child in the local library setting.

Actively seek out your child’s Teacher of the Blind and Partially Sighted, Orientation and Mobility Specialist and technology specialist to address your child’s specific individualized educational library needs.

Even though this is not an inclusive list, it should get you off to a good start in addressing individualized library accommodations for your child.

So, don’t forget to establish a large print and/or Braille lending library to develop your low vision and Braille reader’s literacy skills!

BRAILLE LITERACY…

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